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Autism Nursing Paper

Adults with autism can benefit from vocational training to provide them with the skills needed for obtaining jobs, in addition to social and recreational programs. Adults with autism may live in a variety of residential settings, ranging from an independent home or apartment to group homes, supervised apartment settings, living with other family members or more structured residential care. An increasing number of support groups for adults with autism are emerging around the country.

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Many self-advocates are forming networks to share information, support each other, and speak for themselves in the public arena. More frequently, people with autism are attending and/or speaking at conferences and workshops on autism. Individuals with autism are providing valuable insight into the challenges of this disability by publishing articles and books and appearing in television specials about themselves and their disabilities. What are the Most Effective Approaches? Evidence shows that early intervention results in dramatically positive outcomes for young children with autism. While various pre-school models emphasize different program components, all share an emphasis on early, appropriate, and intensive educational interventions for young children. Other common factors may be: some degree of inclusion, mostly behaviorally-based interventions, programs which build on the interests of the child, extensive use of visuals to accompany instruction, highly structured schedule of activities, parent and staff training, transition planning and follow-up. Because of the spectrum nature of autism and the many behavior combinations that can occur, no one approach is effective in alleviating symptoms of autism in all cases.

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Various types of therapies are available, including (but not limited to) applied behavior analysis, auditory integration training, dietary interventions, discrete trial teaching, medications, music therapy, occupational therapy, PECS, physical therapy, sensory integration, speech/language therapy, TEACCH, and vision therapy. Studies show that individuals with autism respond well to a highly structured, specialized education program, tailored to their individual needs. A well designed intervention approach may include some elements of communication therapy, social skill development, sensory integration therapy and applied behavior analysis, delivered by trained professionals in a consistent, comprehensive and coordinated manner. The more severe challenges of some children with autism may be best addressed by a structured education and behavior program, which contains a one-on-one teacher to student ratio or small group environment. However, many other children with autism may be successful in a fully inclusive general education environment with appropriate support.

In addition to appropriate educational supports in the area of academics, students with autism should have training in functional living skills at the earliest possible age. Learning to cross a street safely, to make a simple purchase or to ask assistance when needed are critical skills, and may be difficult, even for those with average intelligence levels. Tasks that enhance the person’s independence and give more opportunity for personal choice and freedom in the community are important. To be effective, any approach should be flexible in nature, rely on positive reinforcement, be re-evaluated on a regular basis and provide a smooth transition from home to school to community environments. A good program will also incorporate training and support systems for parents and caregivers, with generalization of skills to all settings.

Rarely can a family, classroom teacher or other caregiver provide effective habilitation for a person with autism unless offered consultation or in-service training by an experienced specialist who is knowledgeable about the disability. A generation ago, the vast majority of the people with autism were eventually placed in institutions. Professionals were much less educated about autism than they are today; autism specific supports and services were largely non-existent. Today the picture is brighter. With appropriate services, training, and information, most families are able to support their son or daughter at home. Group homes, assisted apartment living arrangements, or residential facilities offer more options for out of home support.

Autism-specific programs and services provide the opportunity for individuals to be taught skills, which allow them to reach their fullest potential. Families of people with autism can experience high levels of stress. As a result of the challenging behaviors of their children, relationships with service providers, attempting to secure appropriate services, resulting financial hardships, or very busy schedules, families often have difficulty participating in typical community activities. This results in isolation and difficulty in developing needed community supports. The Autism Society of America is here for you. Is There a Cure? Understanding of autism has grown tremendously since Dr.

Leo Kanner first described it in 1943. Some of the earlier searches for cures now seem unrealistic in terms of today’s understanding of brain-based disorders. To cure means to restore to health, soundness, or normality. (Stewart 1999) In the medical sense, there is no cure for the differences in the brain, which result in autism. However, better understanding of the disorder has led to the development of better coping mechanisms and strategies for the various manifestations of the disability.

Some of these symptoms may lessen as the child ages; others may disappear altogether. With appropriate intervention, many of the associated behaviors can be positively changed; even to the point in some cases, that the child or adult may appear to the untrained person to no longer have autism. Although there is no cure for autism, there is hope. With proper therapies children with autism can grow into individuals that can benefit society. Autistic can hold jobs and raise families. Huge strides have been made in trying to find a cure.

There are many parents, doctors, researchers, and educators working hard everyday with the common goal of finding a cause and cure. (Sandler 1999). Bibliography Bibliography Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Online Internet. 4 June 1999. Available http://www.cdc.gov/od/foia/foi.htm Basic Information third edition. The New Jersey Center for Outreach and Services for the Autism Community Inc.

1995. AUTISM: A Lifetime of Service Options. New Jersey Center for Outreach and Services for the Autism Community, Inc. 1998. AUTISM: Perspectives on the Family. New Jersey Center for Outreach and Services for the Autism Community, Inc.

1998. What is Autism. COSAC 1995. Gladsberg, Beth Research in Genetic Etiology of Autism. OutReach Fall/Winter 1999: Hyde, Margaret O. Is This Child Crazy?.

Philadelphia: The West Minister Press, 1983 Potio, Paul A. Autism Awareness. Update. Winter 1999: Sandler, Adrian D. Lack of Benefit of a Single Does of Synthetic Human Secretin in the Treatment of Autism. The New England Journal of Medicine (1999): Stewart, Mark A.

Raising a Hyperactive Child. Random House, 1970. Web of Care. Online. Internet.

22 Feb. 2000. Available http://www.webofcare.com Bibliography Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Online Internet. 4 June 1999. Available http://www.cdc.gov/od/foia/foi.htm Basic Information third edition. The New Jersey Center for Outreach and Services for the Autism Community Inc.

1995. AUTISM: A Lifetime of Service Options. New Jersey Center for Outreach and Services for the Autism Community, Inc. 1998. AUTISM: Perspectives on the Family. New Jersey Center for Outreach and Services for the Autism Community, Inc.

1998. What is Autism. COSAC 1995. Gladsberg, Beth Research in Genetic Etiology of Autism. OutReach Fall/Winter 1999: Hyde, Margaret O. Is This Child Crazy?.

Philadelphia: The West Minister Press, 1983 Potio, Paul A. Autism Awareness. Update. Winter 1999: Sandler, Adrian D. Lack of Benefit of a Single Does of Synthetic Human Secretin in the Treatment of Autism. The New England Journal of Medicine (1999): Stewart, Mark A.

Raising a Hyperactive Child. Random House, 1970. Web of Care. Online. Internet.

22 Feb. 2000. Available http://www.webofcare.com Medicine and Health Care.

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